Program of Physics and Science classes

Earth Science

Entry requirements:

Prerequisites: at least 1 year study at SchoolNova, Math level 4

Brief syllabus of Earth Science

  • What is Earth Science? Six Spheres of the Earth.
  • Earth’s Place in the Universe: Milky Way Galaxy. Solar System. The Sun. The Moon. Search for Earth-like exoplanets in the Universe.
  • Planet Earth: orbit, axis, tilt; poles; equator, tropics, polar circles; day and night; seasons; solstices and equinoxes.
  • Magnetosphere: Earth’s magnetic field; magnetic poles; solar wind; Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights).
  • Cartography: The Globe and coordinates; projections; types of maps.
  • Earth’s Remarkable (Sur)Face: natural wonders of the World.
  • Internal structure of the Earth: core, mantle, crust; Earth’s composition.
  • Lithosphere: tectonic plates, continental drift, types of plate boundaries; geologic processes; landscape formation.
  • Volcano: parts, types; distribution around the world; eruption; volcanic landforms; hot spot volcanism.
  • Earthquakes: magnitude, distribution; seismic waves, seismogram; earthquake prediction; greatest earthquakes; earthquake hazards, tsunami.
  • Hydrosphere: hydrologic cycle; fresh water (rivers, streams, lakes, wetlands); groundwater (aquifers); saltwater (seas, waves, tides).
  • Cryosphere: frozen water (glaciers, permafrost, icebergs); Ice Age.
  • The World Ocean: ocean floor, depth, temperature, salinity; currents, global ocean circulation (conveyor belt, overturning); Gulf Stream.
  • Atmosphere: layers, temperature, air pressure and density; atmospheric gases; evolution of the Earth’s atmosphere; other atmospheres.
  • What is weather? Air masses and atmospheric fronts; wind (Wind Rose, global and local winds, jet stream); clouds (formation, floating condition); precipitation; weather forecast; severe weather (thunderstorm, tropical cyclones, winter storms).
  • Tornado: formation, classification, damage; historical examples.
  • Hurricane: origin, structure, path, classification; storm surge; greatest hurricanes.

Science

(grade 5 and 6 )

Prerequisites: at least 1 year study at SchoolNova, Math level 5

Brief syllabus of Science

  • Introduction to Scientific Method: observations, data, hypothesis, experiment, conclusion.
  • Data and its presentation: variables, tables and graphs.
  • Measurement: the history of measurements (length, mass, volume); units; concept of measurement accuracy/precision/bias; Imperial/US customary Systems of Measurement; Metric System and International System of Units; scientific notation; conversion of units (dimensional analysis); orders of magnitude.
  • What is matter? Matter in Physics: atoms; volume and density; states of matter (solid, liquid, gas, plasma); phases of matter.
  • Matter in Chemistry: chemical elements, compounds, mixtures; molecules.
  • Change of matter: phase transitions and chemical reactions.
  • Energy: mechanical, heat, chemical, electromagnetic, nuclear; energy transfer.
  • What is time? History and methods of time measurement.
  • What is atom? Concept of a model in science; discovery of electron, nucleus, proton; atomic models (Dalton, Thompson, Rutherford, Bohr, electron shell model); modern view of the atom.
  • Nuclear reactions: isotopes, radioactivity, background radiation; nuclear fusion, nucleosynthesis; nuclear fission, nuclear chain reaction, Manhattan project, atomic bomb; nuclear power (reactors, waste, accidents).
  • What is light? Observed properties and behavior of light; famous experiments; modern concept (electromagnetic spectrum, line emission, thermal emission, incandescence, luminescence); light source and intensity; Sun spectrum.
  • Light meets matter: transmission, refraction, dispersion, reflection, absorption, scattering; apparent colors; vision.
  • What is life? The cell: discovery, theory, diversity; microscopes; biomolecules; general cell types; organelles.
  • DNA: gene, genome, genetic code; mutation.
  • Bacteria: characteristics, types, reproduction; helpful and pathogenic bacteria; antibiotics.
  • Viruses: discovery, general characteristics, replication; immune response; vaccination.

Physics 0

Entry requirements:

Entering grade 6

Brief syllabus of Physics 0

  • Space, Time and Motion: elementary kinematics
  • Forces and equilibrium. Simple Machines
  • Pressure, hydrostatics, buoyancy
  • Work and energy
  • Heat, states of matter
  • Electricity, circuits
  • Waves, optics

  • Physics 1

    Entry requirements:

    Entering grade 7 or grade 6 after taking one year of Physics 0 class in SchoolNova

    Brief syllabus of Physics 1

    1. Introduction

    1. What does Physics study. The difference between physics and mathematics. Observations and experiments.
    2. Units and measurements. Scalars and vectors (vectors are given at a very basic level – as a physical quantity having both magnitude and direction).

    2. Mechanics

    1. Rectilinear kinematics
      1. The object of mechanics. How to specify the position of an object. Path and displacement.
      2. Speed and velocity. Average speed and average velocity.
      3. Acceleration. Distance as a function of time at the uniformly accelerated motion. (derived through average velocity).
    2. Dynamics. Force as a reason for acceleration.
      1. First and Second Newton’s laws.
      2. Gravity force
      3. Friction force
      4. Elastic force and Hooke’s law.
      5. Third Newton’s law
    3. Conservations laws. What does “conservation” mean?
      1. Momentum and impulse.
      2. Kinetic energy
      3. Work and potential energy.

    3. States of matter.

    1. Difference between liquid, solid and gas states (interaction between the particles).
    2. Introduction to thermodynamics. Ideal gas.
      1. Volume and pressure. (gas pressure is explained through the elastic collision model).
      2. Temperature. How to measure temperature. Celsius, Fahrenheit and Rankin scales.
      3. Boyle-Marriott law.
      4. Gay-Lussac law.
      5. Equation of state of the ideal gas. Molar mass.
      6. Work done by gas.
    3. Liquids.
      1. Pressure in liquids and buoyant force.
      2. Archimedes law.
    4. Crystals and amorphous materials
      1. Melting and evaporation.

    Physics 2

    Entry requirements:

    Successful completion of Physics 1 in SchoolNova

    Brief syllabus of Physics 2

    1. Electricity

    1. Static electricity
      1. Charges and ways to charge objects (contact and inductive). Static cling. Conservation of charge.
      2. Electric force. Coulomb’s law.
      3. Electric field.
      4. Electric potential energy (point charges). Potential. (special attention to signs, examples).
    2. Electric current
      1. Insulators, conductors and semiconductors.
      2. Why does the electric current flow? Voltage.
      3. Resistivity, resistance and resistors.
      4. Ohm’s law.
      5. Parallel and series connection of resistors.
      6. Ideal and real voltage sources. Internal resistance.
      7. Basic circuits.
      8. Electrical capacitance and capacitors.
      9. Parallel and series connection of capacitors.
      10. Direct and alternating current. Why can capacitors pass alternating current?

    2. Atomic structure of matter

    1. Discovery of electron. J.J.Thomson’s “plum pudding” model.
    2. Ernest Rutherford and Geiger-Marsden experiment. Planetary model of atom.
    3. Why don’t the electrons fall to the nuclei?
    4. Protons and neutrons. What holds the protons together in an atomic nuclei?
    5. Mendeleev’s periodic table of elements.
    6. What is chemical reaction?
    7. Radioactivity.

    Physics 3

    Entry requirements:

    Successful completion of Physics 1 and 2 in SchoolNova

    Brief syllabus of Physics 3

    1. Rotational kinematics

    1. Coordinates for circular motion. What is radian? Angular velocity and acceleration.
    2. Centripetal and centrifugal force. Mach’s gedanken experiment.
    3. Angular momentum. Conservation of angular momentum.

    2. Rotational dynamics

    1. Torque. Equilibrium.
    2. Introduction to moment of inertia. Angular acceleration.

    3. Introduction to Astronomy

    1. Planets, stars and galaxies.
    2. Solar system.
    3. Motion of the planets. Kepler’s laws.
    4. Types of stars. Life and death of a star. Supernovas and black holes.
    5. What is the main sequence?

    4. Earth

    1. Ecliptics and Earth’s orbit.
    2. Climate.
    3. Seasons and the position of the Earth’s orbit.
    4. Atmosphere. Carbon, oxygen and nitrogen cycles.
    5. Hurricanes and tornadoes.

    5. Introduction to oscillatory motion

    1. What is oscillatory motion?
    2. Amplitude, period and frequency of oscillations.
    3. Phase.
    4. Discussion on the examples of the oscillatory motions in nature. What is oscillating?

    Physics 4

    Entry requirements:

    Successful completion of Physics 1, 2, and 3 in SchoolNova

    Brief syllabus of Physics 4

    1. Introduction to optics. What is light?

    2. Geometrical optics.

    1. Opaque and transparent objects. How we can change the direction of light?
    2. Reflection and mirrors
      1. Plane and spherical mirrors. Concave and convex mirrors.
      2. Focal point.
      3. Real and virtual images.
      4. Magnification.
    3. Refraction.
      1. Index of refraction.
      2. Snell’s law.
      3. Thin lenses: how do they work?
      4. Thin lens formula.
      5. Microscopes and telescopes.
      6. Lensmaker’s equation.

    3. Radiometry

    1. Solid angle.
    2. Energy of light
    3. Light as electromagnetic waves: wavelength and frequency. Radiowaves to x-rays.
    4. Radiant energy, radiant flux, radiant exitance, irradiance, radiant intensity.

    4. Photometry

    1. Connection between radiometric and photometric units. Standard luminosity curve.
    2. Luminous energy, luminous flux, luminous exitance, illuminance, luminous intensity.

    5. Quantum nature of light

    1. What do we mean speaking of dual light nature? “Particle” and “wave” languages.
    2. Photon and quantum of light

    6. Introduction to special relativity

    1. Invariance of the speed of light.
    2. Michelson-Morley experiment.
    3. Lorentz transformations. Time dilation and length contraction.

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