# Program of Physics classes

## Physics 0

### Brief syllabus of Physics 0

• Space, Time and Motion: elementary kinematics
• Forces and equilibrium. Simple Machines
• Pressure, hydrostatics, buoyancy
• Work and energy
• Heat, states of matter
• Electricity, circuits
• Waves, optics

• ## Physics 1

### Brief syllabus of Physics 1

#### 1. Introduction

1. What does Physics study. The difference between physics and mathematics. Observations and experiments.
2. Units and measurements. Scalars and vectors (vectors are given at a very basic level – as a physical quantity having both magnitude and direction).

#### 2. Mechanics

1. Rectilinear kinematics
1. The object of mechanics. How to specify the position of an object. Path and displacement.
2. Speed and velocity. Average speed and average velocity.
3. Acceleration. Distance as a function of time at the uniformly accelerated motion. (derived through average velocity).
2. Dynamics. Force as a reason for acceleration.
1. First and Second Newton’s laws.
2. Gravity force
3. Friction force
4. Elastic force and Hooke’s law.
5. Third Newton’s law
3. Conservations laws. What does “conservation” mean?
1. Momentum and impulse.
2. Kinetic energy
3. Work and potential energy.

#### 3. States of matter.

1. Difference between liquid, solid and gas states (interaction between the particles).
2. Introduction to thermodynamics. Ideal gas.
1. Volume and pressure. (gas pressure is explained through the elastic collision model).
2. Temperature. How to measure temperature. Celsius, Fahrenheit and Rankin scales.
3. Boyle-Marriott law.
4. Gay-Lussac law.
5. Equation of state of the ideal gas. Molar mass.
6. Work done by gas.
3. Liquids.
1. Pressure in liquids and buoyant force.
2. Archimedes law.
4. Crystals and amorphous materials
1. Melting and evaporation.

## Physics 2

### Entry requirements:

Successful completion of Physics 1 at SchoolNova

### Brief syllabus of Physics 2

#### 1. Electricity

1. Static electricity
1. Charges and ways to charge objects (contact and inductive). Static cling. Conservation of charge.
2. Electric force. Coulomb’s law.
3. Electric field.
4. Electric potential energy (point charges). Potential. (special attention to signs, examples).
2. Electric current
1. Insulators, conductors and semiconductors.
2. Why does the electric current flow? Voltage.
3. Resistivity, resistance and resistors.
4. Ohm’s law.
5. Parallel and series connection of resistors.
6. Ideal and real voltage sources. Internal resistance.
7. Basic circuits.
8. Electrical capacitance and capacitors.
9. Parallel and series connection of capacitors.
10. Direct and alternating current. Why can capacitors pass alternating current?

#### 2. Atomic structure of matter

1. Discovery of electron. J.J.Thomson’s “plum pudding” model.
2. Ernest Rutherford and Geiger-Marsden experiment. Planetary model of atom.
3. Why don’t the electrons fall to the nuclei?
4. Protons and neutrons. What holds the protons together in an atomic nuclei?
5. Mendeleev’s periodic table of elements.
6. What is chemical reaction?

## Physics 3

### Entry requirements:

Successful completion of Physics 1 and 2 at SchoolNova

### Brief syllabus of Physics 3

#### 1. Rotational kinematics

1. Coordinates for circular motion. What is radian? Angular velocity and acceleration.
2. Centripetal and centrifugal force. Mach’s gedanken experiment.
3. Angular momentum. Conservation of angular momentum.

#### 2. Rotational dynamics

1. Torque. Equilibrium.
2. Introduction to moment of inertia. Angular acceleration.

#### 3. Introduction to Astronomy

1. Planets, stars and galaxies.
2. Solar system.
3. Motion of the planets. Kepler’s laws.
4. Types of stars. Life and death of a star. Supernovas and black holes.
5. What is the main sequence?

#### 4. Earth

1. Ecliptics and Earth’s orbit.
2. Climate.
3. Seasons and the position of the Earth’s orbit.
4. Atmosphere. Carbon, oxygen and nitrogen cycles.

#### 5. Introduction to oscillatory motion

1. What is oscillatory motion?
2. Amplitude, period and frequency of oscillations.
3. Phase.
4. Discussion on the examples of the oscillatory motions in nature. What is oscillating?

## Physics 4

### Entry requirements:

Successful completion of Physics 1, 2, and 3 at SchoolNova

### Brief syllabus of Physics 4

#### 2. Geometrical optics.

1. Opaque and transparent objects. How we can change the direction of light?
2. Reflection and mirrors
1. Plane and spherical mirrors. Concave and convex mirrors.
2. Focal point.
3. Real and virtual images.
4. Magnification.
3. Refraction.
1. Index of refraction.
2. Snell’s law.
3. Thin lenses: how do they work?
4. Thin lens formula.
5. Microscopes and telescopes.
6. Lensmaker’s equation.

1. Solid angle.
2. Energy of light
3. Light as electromagnetic waves: wavelength and frequency. Radiowaves to x-rays.

#### 4. Photometry

1. Connection between radiometric and photometric units. Standard luminosity curve.
2. Luminous energy, luminous flux, luminous exitance, illuminance, luminous intensity.

#### 5. Quantum nature of light

1. What do we mean speaking of dual light nature? “Particle” and “wave” languages.
2. Photon and quantum of light

#### 6. Introduction to special relativity

1. Invariance of the speed of light.
2. Michelson-Morley experiment.
3. Lorentz transformations. Time dilation and length contraction.

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